Section 1

War and Peace

“War and Peace” section highlights how architect Tange Kenzo dealt with the Second World War. Throughout the prewar and postwar periods, Tange prioritized the treatment of the war dead in designing. While modern architectures generally advocate functionality and prioritize the benefit of the living people’s daily life, Tange pursued architectural designs through which the surviving citizens remain connected to the war dead. This section introduces presentation panels of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, which earned him an international acclaim.

  • 1-1.
    The Great East Asia Memorial Competition: The Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall

    Birds-eye perspective | Kenchikuzasshi [Journal of Architecture and Building Science], December 1942, Architectural Institute of Japan

  • 1-2.
    Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

    Central Theme of Hiroshima City Planning | Peace City HIROSHIMA

  • 1-3.
    Memorial Plaza for Students Who Perished in the War

    Model for Memorial for Students Who Perished in the War | 2013 | The Kagawa Museum

  • 1-4.
    Lecture Manuscripts

    “Urban planning” lecture notes, written by Ohtoshi Mikio | Circa 1952 | Private Collection

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Section 2

Modernity and Tradition

“Modernity and Tradition” depicts how Tange identified modern architecture and traditional Japanese architecture through interactions with masters like Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius and reflected his findings on his design. Tange’s ingenious interpretation and adoption of advantages presented by various designs, such as Palace of the Soviets by Le Corbusier, is particularly noticeable in his graduation project. In 1960, Tange and Gropius jointly published Katsura, a photo collection, from the Yale University Press, but Tange developed a view on traditional architecture unique from that of Gropius later. The section displays Tange’s own sketch of his residence for the first time in Japan.

  • 2-1.
    Graduation Project : “CHATEAU D’ART”

    Exterior perspective drawing | 1938 | Department of Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo

  • 2-2.
    Tange’s Home

    Exterior (Photo taken by Tange Kenzo) | Circa 1953 | Private Collection

  • 2-3.
    Renovation Plan of Tange’s Home

    Scheme design: Garage from the Western road | Circa 1964 | Private Collection

  • 2-4.
    Le Corbusier

    Letter from Le Corbusier to Tange | July 13, 1959 | Private Collection

  • 2-5.
    Walter Gropius

    Mr. and Mrs. Gropius and Tange visiting Kurashiki and Hiroshima | 1954 | Private Collection

  • 2-6.
    Katsura Imperial Villa

    Katsura Imperial Villa | Photo by Ishimoto Yasuhiro, Collection of the Museum of Art, Kochi Ⓒ Kochi Prefecture, Ishimoto Yasuhiro Photo Center

  • 2-7.
    Tange Modulor

    Tange’s modulor extending out from the building into the city (Kamiya Koji, “Ichinomiya Apartment Complex Project”) | Kenchiku Bunka, June 1961, Shokokusha

  • 2-8.
    Sumi Memorial Hall

    Pilotis | − | Private Collection

  • 2-9.
    Sogetsu Kaikan

    Sogetsu Kaikan structural calculation documents | March 1955 | Kawaguchi Laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo

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Section 3

Postwar Democracy and Government Building Architecture

“Postwar Democracy and Government Building Architecture” looks back on how Tange designed government buildings with an intent to encourage citizens to congregate in the devastated city center (the core of the city) and share the sense of involvement in policymaking. Prewar government buildings were required to ooze the majestic authority of politicians and bureaucrats without any element of closeness to the general public. Tange, however, assumed that workers are attracted to the city center and attempted to unite the government buildings with the city core where people can work and spend time comfortably. This section showcases the former Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office, Imabari City Hall and Kagawa Prefectural Government Office to introduce how Tange attempted to connect cities and architectures.

  • 3-1.
    The former Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office

    North elevation | − | Private Collection

  • 3-2.
    Fluidity Survey at the former Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office

    Interaction between Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office departments expressed by different sized circles (“Relationships, Distribution, and Flow”) | Kenchiku bunka, April 1967, Shokokusha

  • 3-3.
    Kagawa Prefectural Government Office

    Section | June 10, 1955 | The Kenzō Tange Archive [Kagawa Prefectural Government Building]. Gift of Mrs. Takako Tange, 2011. Courtesy of the Frances Loeb Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Design.

  • 3-4.
    Kagawa Prefectural Government Office Structural Drawings

    Tange gazing at the Kagawa Prefectural Government Office | − | Private Collection

  • 3-5.
    Imabari City Hall Structural Drawings

    Imabari City Hall Complex structural calculation documents | July 31, 1957 | Kawaguchi Laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo

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Section 4

Challenge to Massive Space

“Challenge to Massive Space” depicts the process in which Tange realized various shell structures in partnership with Yoshikatsu Tsuboi, a structural engineer. In Japan in the aftermath of the war, any architectural design involving a large space unobstructed by pillars, such as gymnasiums, generally required steel frames. Because steel was extremely expensive, Tange and Tsuboi explored the possibilities of economical shell structures with bold design. In the US, Eero Saarinen led the trend by MIT auditorium, etc. at the time. Tange regarded Saarinen as his arch-rival and successfully installed multiple shell structures on the earthquake-prone terrains of Japan.

  • 4-1.
    Hiroshima Church Design Competition

    Perspective Drawing | Heiwakinen Hiroshima katorikku seido sekkeikyougi sekkei tosho [Plans submitted by architects of Japan in competition for the Memorial Church of Hiroshima] Koyosha, 1949

  • 4-2.
    Hiroshima Children’s Library

    Bar arrangement drawing | 23 April, 1952 | Kawaguchi Laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo

  • 4-3.
    Ehime Prefectural Hall Sketch

    Draft of the Ehime Prefectural Hall building in Tange Kenzo’s notebook | February, March 1952 | Private Collection

  • 4-4.
    Ehime Prefectural Public Hall

    Model for Ehime Prefectural Public Hall | 2013 | The Kagawa Museum

  • 4-5.
    Sunpu/Shizuoka Convention Hall (Former Shizuoka Gymnasium)

    Shizuoka Gymnasium structural calculation documents | April 6, 1957 | Kawaguchi Laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo

  • 4-6.
    Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium

    Bar arrangement drawing of the second floor slab | − | The Kenzō Tange Archive [Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium]. Gift of Mrs. Takako Tange, 2011. Courtesy of the Frances Loeb Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Design.

  • 4-7.
    St.Mary’s Cathedral Design Competition

    Competition proposal model | − | Private Collection

  • 4-8.
    St. Mary’s Cathedral

    Section | June 15, 1963 | The Kenzō Tange Archive [St. Mary’s Cathedral, Tokyo]. Gift of Mrs. Takako Tange, 2011. Courtesy of the Frances Loeb Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Design

  • 4-9.
    The Kuwait Sports Centre project

    Ground floor plan | September 1969 | Tange Associates

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Section 5

Designs in Information Society and High Economic Growth

“Designs in Information Society and Osaka Expo” focuses on how Tange envisaged new urban cityscape as the Japanese economy entered the high-growth period. Since before the war, overconcentration of population in Tokyo was already a massive social issue. During the high-growth era, the problem of excessive concentration in Tokyo area further deteriorated. Tange responded by presenting Tokyo Plan 1960, in which he appealed for the necessity to replace the concentric urban model centering Tokyo Station with a linear urban model. Furthermore, the architect envisioned the transformation of Japanese society from industrial-centric to information-centric by producing a series of three-dimensional urban architectures. This section showcases a national land development map and a model of Yamanashi Cultural Hall.

  • 5-1.
    Redevelopment Project of Shizuoka City Center A Letter to Tange Kenzo from Isozaki Arata

    Letter from Isozaki Arata to Tange | December 11, 1959 | Private Collection

  • 5-2.
    Project for a Community of 25,000 People at Boston Bay

    Section A-A | − | Private Collection

  • 5-3.
    A Plan for Tokyo 1960

    A Plan for Tokyo 1960 – Toward a Structural Organization | 1961 | Private Collection

  • 5-4.
    Dentsu Headquarters Building

    Measurement of Young’s modulus using prototype acrylic | − | Kawaguchi Laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo

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    Yamanashi Press and Broadcasting Center

    Model for Yamanashi Press and Broadcasting Center | − | Yamanashi Press and Broadcasting Center

  • 5-6.
    Tokaido Megalopolis

    Vision of the future for cities: a systematic approach to the environment | 21seiki no nihon: sono kokudo to kokuminseikatsu no miraizou [21st Century Japan, A Vision of the Future on the National Land and Living],Shinkenchikusha, 1971

  • 5-7.
    Regional Structure of Japanese Archipelago —Atlas

    Flow of Marine Freight | Nihonrettou no chiikikouzou zushu [Regional Structure of Japanese Archipelago (Atlas)], Japan Center for Area Development Research, 1967

  • 5-8.
    Osaka World Exposition / Masterplan for the Core Facility

    Third proposal for the venue basic plan | Shinkenchiku December 1966, Shinkenchikusha

  • 5-9.
    Osaka World Exposition / Tower of the Sun

    Tower of the Sun: arm component shape and framework diagrams, cross-sectional list | March 5, 1969 | Kawaguchi Laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo

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Section 6

Integration of the Five Keywords

“Integration of the Five Keywords” introduces Yoyogi National Gymnasium, acclaimed as Tange’s magnum opus. The gymnasium was constructed to host the swimming and basketball competitions of 1964 Olympics in Tokyo. In the Olympics and Paralympics in 2020, it will serve as the handball and wheelchair rugby venues. The section portrays how Tange’s designing mastery described in the previous sections culminated in Yoyogi National Gymnasium, which remain fully integrated and functional in today’s society.

  • 6-1.
    Yoyogi National Gymnasium

    Yoyogi National Gymnasium | 1964 | Photo taken by Ishimoto Yasuhiro, Courtesy of the Museum of Art, Kochi Ⓒ Kochi Prefecture, Ishimoto Yasuhiro Photo Center

  • 6-2.
    Yoyogi National Gymnasium

    Tange gazing the model of Yoyogi National Gymnasium | - | Private collection

  • 6-3.
    Yoyogi National Gymnasium

    Site plan | October 15, 1962 | The Kenzō Tange Archive [Yoyogi Gymnasium]. Gift of Mrs. Takako Tange, 2011. Courtesy of the Frances Loeb Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Design.

  • 6-4.
    Yoyogi National Gymnasium

    Yoyogi National Gymnasium | 2020 | Chiba University Toyokawa Laboratory

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